Creating an automated framework is a critical first step in ensuring your software testing efforts are successful and efficient. An automation framework offers an organized set of rules and procedures for creating and managing automated test scripts. Automation is a critical competency for QA engineers looking to increase their productivity and test quality. A free (open source) automated testing framework named Selenium is used to verify web applications on many platforms and browsers.
Building and maintaining an automation framework that can work with various environments, technologies, and scenarios is complex. This thorough tutorial will cover every aspect of creating an automation framework, from planning and design to implementation and upkeep, by dissecting the process into its parts.
Critical Components for Developing a Test Automation Framework
The following elements affect how a test automation framework is made-
Code libraries offer pre-written code fragments that can be utilized again when creating automated test scripts later.
- Code libraries called wrappers and helpers write tests in higher-level interfaces. These libraries can also handle pre- and post-conditions and group actions.
- Open-source Ruby add-on libraries such as Watir and Capybara enhance the user experience when interacting with items inside the application code.
- It offers more advanced management for frames and window interaction by URL, title, or index.
- To guarantee that the properties and actions of each element are encapsulated, each element type loads and initializes elements lazily.
- One can find unique items without using Xpath and difficult-to-read CSS.
- Users do not need to explicitly comprehend the workings of Selenium testing when they use abstractions. Experienced developers may write tests more quickly and easily due to these abstractions.
Since these libraries are frequently available as open source, copyright concerns are not a concern for developers. Teams may easily incorporate new features without starting from scratch or rewriting old code.
For accurate test results and thorough test coverage, test data is essential. Dealing with the data that UI objects are represented by is termed data modeling. Users can establish a more effective and efficient testing method by integrating data modeling into the self-testing test automation frameworks and efforts.
Do you know what configuration data are? It’s a unique group of data that calls for a distinct strategy. Utilizing the Watir model will inform you that configuration data should be stored in a group. Yet, unlike other models, it frequently requires configuration via a CI environment option.
Users can utilize environment variables to overwrite the default data with a custom model class. You can change your settings depending on how your continuous integration (CI) is configured, or even if you’re working locally, you can change your settings. Cucumber, initialization, and Initialization and cleanup are two valuable platforms.
Combining is a code feature that consistently sparks debates. Although others enjoy blending different objects and techniques, this might lead to further confusion.
For instance, start a login page from scratch, change the address, and submit the form in one line. However, it may result in a need for more awareness of your current situation. Instead, it is descriptive to divide these responsibilities into distinct lines and initialize the subsequent object independently.
In addition, it can save a ton of time by using alternative logins or inputs when you establish a go-to way for accessing a page. Also, one can modify the behavior of numerous tests at once by altering the code in one location.
Have you ever had trouble understanding complex code for UI testing? It’s now easier than ever to test your user interface through APIs with the new UI to API Gem. This Gem streamlines the process by creating endpoints and setting up a base URL.
It provides freedom in creating methods and configuring headers in this way. In addition, it will save time by removing the requirement to launch the browser to start and finish the testing.
Roadmap for Testing Process
A guide for anyone seeking to improve the efficiency of their testing procedures.
1. Setting of the Objectives and Scope
Specify your automation framework’s goals that your automation framework will achieve. What goals do you have in mind? Is it enhanced test coverage, quicker feedback on code changes, or faster regression testing? Defining the scope aids in planning and guarantees that your efforts align with your project’s objectives and are in line with the objectives of your project.
2. Choose the Right Tools
Choosing the appropriate tools is crucial, and Selenium should be on your list. Selenium’s adaptability makes it a popular choice for web application testing. Selenium can be used in conjunction with other tools like TestNG or JUnit for test management and reporting. Consider the requirements of your project and the team’s skill level while evaluating the tools.
When it comes to Selenium, its true capabilities can be leveraged when used along with cloud tools like LambdaTest. LambdaTest is an AI-powered test orchestration and execution platform to run manual and automated tests at scale. The platform allows you to perform real-time and automation testing across 3000+ environments and real mobile devices.
In essence, the collaboration between Selenium and LambdaTest empowers testing teams to overcome traditional testing challenges by providing a scalable, efficient, and dynamic testing environment. This synergy ensures that web applications are thoroughly tested for performance, compatibility, and functionality across diverse scenarios, contributing to delivering high-quality software products.
3. Designing the Framework Architecture
The automation framework’s architecture is comparable to a building’s blueprint. A carefully considered architecture guarantees scalability, maintainability, and reusability. The Page Object Model (POM), which represents each web page as a class encompassing its features and functionalities, is a valuable tool for Selenium testing.
4. Setting Up Version Control
To manage your automation code, use tools such as Git to implement version control. Thanks to this, team members can work together more efficiently, keep track of changes, and easily roll back changes if necessary.
5. Creating a Folder Structure
Keep the project organized using a distinct folder structure. This easy step, which creates directories for utilities, configuration files, test data, and scripts, guarantees that the automation project stays manageable.
6. Handling Test Data
Formulate a test data management plan. It is essential to ensure easy maintainability and updates without changing the test scripts, whether generated within the framework, stored in external files, or kept in databases.
7. Implementing Page Object Model
Using the Page Object Model (POM) improves script readability and maintainability in Selenium testing. It entails building distinct classes for every webpage, encapsulating components and activities, and encouraging test reusability.
8. Incorporating Reporting and Logging
For comprehensive test reports, integrate reporting systems like Allure or Extent Reports. When problems occur, logging should be used to record details about the test’s execution and help with debugging.
9. Handling Test Configurations
Implement a configuration management system to manage various test settings, such as browsers or environments. It guarantees adaptability while running tests in different environments.
10. Integrating with Continuous Integration (CI) Tools
Link your continuous integration (CI) framework to GitLab CI or Jenkins. Enabling automated test execution on code commits helps to advance a pipeline for continuous integration and delivery.
11. Implementing Cross-Browser and Cross-Platform Testing
Ensure your framework can support testing on various platforms and browsers. You may verify your application’s compatibility with Selenium’s cross-browser capabilities, which offer more thorough test coverage.
12. Handling Synchronization and Waits
Ensure your scripts include explicit waits and synchronization techniques when using Selenium testing. It increases the stability of your automated tests by guaranteeing they can withstand delays brought on by asynchronous processes or dynamic page components.
13. Implementing Error Handling and Recovery Scenarios
Create a plan for managing mistakes and specifying possible outcomes for the Selenium testing automation system. It guarantees a robust testing environment by gracefully enabling your tests to handle unforeseen problems.
14. Maintaining and Updating the Framework
To keep your automation framework up to date with modifications to the application being tested, make regular updates and maintenance. Do code reviews and refactor code as necessary to make the framework more maintainable and ensure it changes as the project does.
15. Training and Documentation
Team members should receive training on using the automation framework properly. Keep thorough records that include instructions, best practices, and troubleshooting advice.
Common Issues Occur in Test Automation
When developing an automation framework, these specific problems were mentioned by the majority of test automation engineers.
Opinions on retries tend to be polarizing. However, most of the time, it’s not the best idea. Yes, there are circumstances in which you are forced to do continuous testing again. Yet, depending solely on retries may result in various genuine issues that are challenging to identify. In addition, there’s always the chance of receiving a different outcome each time, even if you need to try again.
Thus, reducing false failures should always be the main priority, even though there might be some exceptions. Retries in your test suite are contingent upon your present circumstances. Do you frequently get inconsistent results from a test script? If so, consider giving it another go.
But avoid using this as your default method for creating automated testing. Instead of depending on retries, think about keeping track of your failures and identifying consistently wrong tests so you can repair them first. Your testing procedure will become more dependable and effective in the long run.
2. Choosing the type of test
Imperative and declarative tests are the two types of tests you can create. While the second one concentrates on the larger picture and context, the first requires describing every detail. All that matters is what, not how.
Consider the following example: imperative code frequently lists all actions and data using the browser directly. Declarative assertions, on the other hand, produce precise data with relevant context. You must use this method to ensure that your data is interpreted correctly and is valid. For more precise and more meaningful findings, think about utilizing a declarative approach the next time you develop a test.
Many times, when you create data and submit it through a form, you anticipate what the error answer would be. Page objects can abstract away coding details from business needs to meet expectations.
It takes careful planning to build an automation framework using Selenium, from identifying the need for automation to ongoing maintenance. By following this thorough guidance, you can build a robust framework that improves testing effectiveness and adds to the overall success of your software development lifecycle. Recall that flexibility and a dedication to ongoing development are crucial.